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Ngày truy cập:
19 tháng 12, 2018
Số lượt truy cập
31052
 
 
 
 
AGRI-TOURISM
Model of agro-tourism is a prudent orientation of the policy on the farming, farm-village and farmer

Recommendation 1: Ensuring the economic benefit of each farm-household is a key of the policy on the farming, farm-village and farmer (the policy of farm-object triple).

Over past twenty years implementing the policy on renovation by the market regime, hastening the speed of industrial and urban development, we have gained great successes. However, it has also shown the risks of recession on environmental landscape as well as ethic and culture of a society being born from a pure farming economy. Another risk is the loss of farming land quickly into the plutocracy which are hired behind the incorporations, groups, companies, due to equivocal implementation of law on farming land use right, the farmer is easily lost their land because not considered as the owner of their inherited land property via generations. This is absolutely opposite with whole purpose of the national revolution led by Ho Uncle namely sharing farming land out among the farmer and swopped so much born and blood of the nation. At the conference of farming, farm-village and farmer just held in HCMC, there was an opinion: “If there is too large difference in the urban and rural area’s living standard, our country must see much larger emigration toward the city. This of course, results in breaking the urban space and making the rural culture collapsed”. Loosing the key farming instrument i.e., the land or impossible to earn living with products harvesting on their petty part of farming land, then resulting in being fed up with the land, the farmer has to emigrate for earning living, finally becomes pauperized. If this problem is happened to a large extent and in ambition to build up huge urbans like Megacity and a range of industrial zones everywhere together with weak and rightist management and corrupt evil and embezzlement, there were, are and will be serious environmental disasters with uncountable price. For instance, that is the cancer exposured villages at different areas whose number is among the highest in the world. The industrialization and reception of investment in any price has been regardless of the criteria of environmental protection which is still main foundation for the existence and development on a lot of aspects of 80% population living in the agriculture at the villages, hamlet in all over our country. Speed of destruction had ever been sometime and somewhere nearly the threshold exterminated. Within over 20 past years, in our country, the diversity of biological resources has been seriously destroyed and Viet Nam is among 16 countries with the highest deforestation in the world and exhaustive exploitation of limestone ranges where help remaining the large underground water source, rich and various flora and fauna and medicable herb species as well, to build up factories and plants, exploit timbers, ores and materials for the metallurgy and cement industries. The industrial zones along coastal and river areas hadn’t treated their harmful and toxic wastes, but directly discharged into the environment, which are causing the degradation of coastal shelf, old alluvial shelves of river systems, ecologies at lagoons, lakes, wetlands, fluvial bogs, etc.,. The bio-diversity is the cradle of living, where has generated the ecological covering layer for making sustainable development and existence of the agricultural ecology with unique produces. Farm produces deeply contain the natural nuance of their area if getting support by the sound policies with protective law and appropriate application of technical science, then will create highly commercial products in Vietnamese trademark to supply the domestic and oversea market, and consequently create the sharply competitive advantage for our country in the global integration. This has been proved by typically specific products such as coffee, tea, pepper, fish-sauce of Phu Quoc; shrimp, basa fish (Pangasius bocourti)/Mekong giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas), rice in Red and Mekong river deltas which have affirming the specific trait of agriculturally geographical position of Viet Nam. Additionally, the economic downturn at this moment in the world, it would all the more show the importance of countries with great natural resources of the foodstuff, fresh water and energy. Developing an agricultural economy in open market mechanism is a way to implement the process of agricultural and rural industrialization so that to create commercial products which are competitive enough of the quality and quantity to supply the domestic market and export. Risk of losing farming land and manpower has been happening and may be more and more increasingly in scope if the State has no support to establish a technical substructure of culture, society, economy, technology and science; to research and look for market, then hold supply by the clear information of quality control.

 ‘Khoán mười’ policy (a policy of cultivating land sharing to each farm household) has established a historical revolution is to change the position of agriculture in our country differently from the concentrate subsidized mechanism before, thus agro-products has been closely combined with each farm household’s benefit via owning the farming land even if temporary. The farmer themselves are infusing a spirit into their land which is a cook-house and a diligent mother regardless of day and night to breast-feed so many generations by the time. Up to now, when joining in the so called ‘big sea’ of market with fierce competitiveness while not held to gather into a force, so each individual farmer felt having no strength left and exhausted. In addition, the temptation with higher living level at the urban areas has been disturbing in farm-villages and the trend of emigration to cities is more and more eventful, resulting in concerns negative rather than positive because the farmer has not been prepared yet the integration of culture and lifestyle. An urgent requirement at this moment to the policy of farm-object triple is that the individual production must be applied with a new management and organization model of production, quality control and promotion for the agro-products together prudently applying with the advances of science and technology to each farm household. Implementing this new Model should have comprehensive revolutionism in meaning that by the operation of open market economy, each farm household must themselves get actual benefit from their products but not the dealer as right now. Farm households must become well-organized force and be well prepared the knowledge of market for the efficiency.  

Thoroughly discussing about the policy, mechanism and establishment of management models of farming, farm-village and farmer in the orientation of market is not only an obligation but also as a national policy in a newly developing period of the agricultural country. Because as a national policy, it is very necessary to have support from the theorists and practical theories, which is not good only in theory but also highly applicable in practice and reflects topical questions. It should apply experimentally with pilot models so that to be enlarged if successful, but not leave a work unfinished under the drastic and comprehensive support by the Communist Party and Government in levels. Till at that time only, it could stop the farmer to leave their farming and farm-village and stop the pauperization at farm-villages, which is a trend happening more and more increasingly while developing the industrialization and urbanization without harmony combination of benefit of the great majority of farmer as right now.

Recommendation 2: Establishing a model of Agro-Tourism – one of efficient solution to ensure the farm households’ economic benefit and change the farm-village’ face toward the modernization. It would recommend making as a pilot at buffering area surrounding Ba Vi mountain region during the administrative extension of the Capital.

Seeing in the world, such picture had ever happened 30-40 years ago in the developed countries. For example: in in period of 1960-1980, leaving from the farming increased badly. Within 10 years of 1980s, there were about 400.000 farm households having left the farming for other works. The Italian Government had to face a serious crisis. Such similar situation had also happened in , , , and so on. To deal with this matter, governments of these countries had developed a lot of countermeasures for the stop, in which there is a way efficiently developed which has shown over decades of years in operation that it has very good impact for the farmer’s income, and then make the farm-village’s face changed quickly. That is the government had taken notice on developing the agri-tourism. For naming this manner of operation, there were several callings. For instance, in , it’s called as “Agri-tourismo”, in as “Rural-tourism”, in as “ Homestead ”, in as “Green-tourism” and in as “Tourism de Verdure”.

For the convenience, it should be commonly called as Agritourism. This is a way to make on-site export efficiently of commercial agro-products and directly promote the product origin by more and more increasing demand of social community in large cities to self protect their health against harmful exposured foodstuff and polluted environment. The Agritourism means the interchange of nature, culture and human between urban and rural areas via visiting, staying and sightseeing by given purposes to enjoy the local farm produces at each farm household or farmstead, etc.,. Due to the importance of the society as well as economy, the operation of Agritourism having been started from Europe has enlarging in all over the world. Main purpose of this operation is to offer a chance of income improvement at farm-villages. In developed countries, this operation has been the government noticed so much and regulated by law. For instance, in , 35 years since the starting in 1960, their government had put in law in 1995, but had before enacted this operation of Agri-tourismo in 1985; in , the law of recreation in rural, fishing and mountainous areas was enacted in 1994 and enforced in 2006.

The way of Agritourism in some countries had got the encouraging results of economy. For example, in , within 5years from 1985 to 1990, the proceeds of this industry had got almost twice time growth. In 10 years from 1990 to 2000, it had increased up to 50%. The turnover in 2004 was Euro 880 millions, in which number of domestic tourist made up 1/4 only and the rest coming from other European countries. Almost families experienced their agri-tourist trip from 3-6 days, with the first criterion of the rest, then the events and cultural hesitates, and eating, respectively.

In , it was too tired with the bustling at urban areas, American people more and more prefer the Agritourism. A farmstead had attracted over 1.4 millions tourists per year; some other farmstead gained turnover by 10millions USD. Thus, many farmers had changed their farmstead and house into attractive recreation.

In 2001, there were 62 millions of tourist times taking holiday at the farmsteads. The annual turnover from the Agri-tourism ranged from US$20millions in Vermont to US$200millions in New York . In Hawaii , profit from the Agri-tourism operation increased by 30% in period of 2000-2003, to US$34millions. Jersey Dairy farmstead of Young family at Yellow Springs, Ohio has attracting over 1.4millions tourists per year. There is here a baseball-house, mini golf court and creamery.

And Country Farm & Stores farmstead of Eckert family near to St. Louis, Missouri has been earning by US$10millions per year, in which 80% is based on the operation of restaurant, bread-oven and souvenir shops.

To support farmers who want to change into the agri-tourism operation, some states in US has established the offices of agri-tourism. This year, state of Pennsylvania has formed a credit fund of US$150millions to support and offer preferred loans to these farmers who want to change into this new tourist operation.

In North Carolina , via the support of a tourist office, Pam Griffin had changed his tobacco farm in Fuquay-Varina into a maize “maze” in last summer. Griffin and John –her husband, never grow the maize before, but she decided to learn because she didn’t want the farm established by 5 generations of John family has to be left fellow. Her couple had invested US$30,000 into the “maze” and till the middle of last October, there were about 2,000tourists come to have holiday. A chestnut farm at Valley Center, California, where had attracted over 10,000 visitors in week-end holidays of October, there isn’t any chestnut tree in fact, but selling decade of chestnut kinds imported from all over the world.

Model of Agri-tourism should need studying to apply with in our country together with making macro-policies and promulgating specific laws for the application as if a positive support from the inhabitant of urban areas to the improvement of rural living level via consumption of agro-products. At the same time, it should encourage to develop farming economy based on the combination of farm produces manufacture by each farm household. It would recommend to make study, then establish a pilot model of the agricultural ecology at buffering area surrounding Ba Vi mountain region in order to develop the agri-tourism with produces of fresh milk, naturally bred chicken, goat, rabbit, medicable herbs, honey, mineral water, safe and clean vegetables and so on. Reason for selecting the buffering area surrounding Ba Vi region is due to where there are groups of purely farming inhabitant with majority of Muong and Dzao ethnic groups making cultivation based on the diversity of terrain, natural landscape and ecology.

Ha Noi in extension, due to the very large number of farming inhabitant, thus, the mutation into the urban administration is not only a simply mechanical process but also to need setting up sound viewpoints of strategies relating to the social, cultural, economic and eco-environmental issues, and to put forth prudent approaches and steps. It should have a Plan of functional sub-areas based on the thorough and overall study on resources, in which it should give first criterion on the ecological resources. The urban areas could be built up at a lot of other areas, but the natural produces is present at their own land area only. For the above reason, it should make a Plan with main purpose to closely preserve the natural ecology of Ba Vi National Park (from height 0 to the top) and agriculturally ecological area surrounding Ba Vi mountain region so that to enhance the farm produces. For example, the Ba Vi fresh cow milk has been recognized as among the best in the world with special and delicious taste and aroma (based on the analysis results of 3 main contents namely protein, raw and fat substance, made by International Dairy Company) and other produces such as naturally bred chicken, goat, rabbit, indigenous vegetables and fruits, medicable herbs, pure underground water source. For making plan, it must avoid to lose naturally ecological cover and features of agricultural ecology which it has been spent millions of year to form, then at where there are such precious produces for the health of community and creating stable income of the farming citizen class who are manufacturing those produces. It should avoid taking too much land to build up the urban zones and recreation area. And Ba Vi National Park, due to the important role for protecting the naturally original gene sources of both flora and fauna, and as a base of biological diversity to form a belt of sustainably fresh and clean foodstuff inside the Capital in extension, it need so much considering the stop of land issue continuously to the tourist resorts which are more and more penetrating further into the Park with surface area up to thousands of hectare while total area of the Park is not by ten thousands hectare. For example, tourist resort of Thien Son-Thac Nga intends to occupy the entire Eastern forest side of Ba Vi mountain, even though had issued near 400ha inside the sanctuary for their operation of weekend tours. It should set up a separate law on protecting the natural resources of land and forest of Ba Vi mountain and buffer area prior to the developing pressure of the Capital in extension.

Establishing a support program for the farm households who are focusing on the produces via activities of agri-tourism is to form a farming citizen class inside the extension Capital. The farming citizens themselves will take an important role in supplying naturally fresh and clean products, creating a belt of safe foodstuff to Ha Noi inhabitant, contributing a part to build up a civilized Capital with the respect to natural preservation, joining in community education for the urban inhabitant, especially the young generations via activities of ecological agri-tourism. On the contrary, Ha Noi in position of largely cultural, scientific and economic center, where leading experts of many practical fields and transfer of technology and science are living in, such as: technology of eco-environmental protection, protecting natural gene sources; model for protecting the community health; model of sound management of agriculture to raise quickly the living standard of farm households; model of organization on socio-cultural aspects to develop green urbans grown up from the villages, ethnic groups’ living locals, and to make harmony the integration of urban lifestyle in combination with preservation of specific traits of their locally own culture, it is a very ideal area for the researching and practicing via activities of agri-tourism.

Agricultural ecological area surrounding Ba Vi mountain region located inside Ha Noi Extension Capital must be built up as a standard model for the agri-tourism of because of following reasons:

· Ha Noi is always as a center of agricultural civilization of Red River Delta, which has been bright since thousands of years.

· Ba Vi Ancestor Mountain is as a shield not only for spirit and thinking but also for naturally ecological environment of the entire inhabitant of Ha Noi.

In Viet Nam, such kinds of agri-tourism has ever applied by some tourist destinations such as Sapa-Lao Cai, Khanh Hoa, some provinces in Mekong River Delta like My Tho, Vinh Long, Can Tho, etc,. However, it is still seen as a trivial operation right now because there isn’t any theory, course of development and popularization of development so that to submit the Government this form of important tourist economy in an agricultural country like Viet Nam./.

Ha Noi, August, 2008

Dr. Ngo Kieu Oanh

Viet Nam Academy of Science and Technology.

 
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